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Hot Flashes, Menopause, & Postmenopause in Women
The abstracts below show the benefits of bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (BHRT) for both a woman's mind and body.  All highlights are by Dr. Shira Miller.

Ten reasons to be happy about hormone replacement therapy: a guide for patients. Studd J.London PMS and Menopause Clinic, 46 Wimpole Street, London W1G8SD, UK.  
In spite of the negative press reports following the 2002 Women's Health Initiative (WHI) publication, women can be reassured that in the correct circumstances, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is beneficial and safe, particularly if treatment is started below the age of 60. Transdermal estradiol is probably safer than oral estrogens ...Click here to continue reading.

Premature menopause or early menopause: long-term health consequences. Maturitas. 2010 Feb;65(2):161-6  Shuster LT, Rhodes DJ, Gostout BS, Grossardt BR, Rocca WA. Womens Health Clinic, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
OBJECTIVE: To review and summarize current evidence on the health consequences of premature menopause and early menopause. METHODS: We reviewed existing literature and combined graphically some results from the Mayo Clinic Cohort Study of Oophorectomy and Aging. RESULTS: Premature menopause or early menopause may be either spontaneous or induced. Women who experience premature menopause (before age 40 years) or early menopause (between ages 40 and 45 years) experience an increased risk of overall mortality, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, psychiatric diseases, osteoporosis, and other sequelae...Click here to continue reading.

Short-term Hormone Therapy with Transdermal Estradiol Improves Cognition for Postmenopausal Women with Alzheimer's Disease: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011 Jun 21.Wharton W, Baker LD, Gleason CE, Dowling M, Barnet JH, Johnson S, Carlsson C, Craft S, Asthana S. University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, WI, USA.
We aimed to conduct a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group design intervention study to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of hormone therapy (HT) in postmenopausal women with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). The trial was designed to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of transdermal 17-β estradiol, unopposed and opposed with medroxyprogesterone (MPA, Provera©), for 12 months in 50 postmenopausal women with AD...Click here to continue reading.  
Click here to watch video regarding above study.
Effects of sex hormones on Alzheimer's disease-associated β-amyloid oligomer formation in vitro. Exp Neurol. 2011 Apr;228(2):298-302. Epub 2011 Jan 31. Morinaga A, Ono K, Takasaki J, Ikeda T, Hirohata M, Yamada M. Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa 920-8640, Japan
The folding of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) into oligomeric, protofibrillar, and fibrillar assemblies is hypothesized to be the key pathogenic event in Alzheimer's disease (AD), with oligomeric assemblies thought to be the most neurotoxic. Inhibitors of oligomer formation, therefore, could be valuable therapeutics for patients with AD. Epidemiological studies have indicated that estrogen therapy reduces the risk of developing AD in women...Click here to continue reading.

The bioidentical hormone debate: are bioidentical hormones (estradiol, estriol, and progesterone) safer or more efficacious than commonly used synthetic versions in hormone replacement therapy? Holtorf K. Holtorf Medical Group, Inc., Torrance, CA. 
The use of bioidentical hormones, including progesterone, estradiol, and estriol, in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has sparked intense debate. Of special concern is their relative safety compared with traditional synthetic and animal-derived versions, such as conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), and other synthetic progestins. Proponents for bioidentical hormones claim that they are safer than comparable synthetic and nonhuman versions of HRT. Yet according to the US Food and Drug Administration and The Endocrine Society, there is little or no evidence to support claims that bioidentical hormones are safer or more effective...Click here to continue reading.

Combined hormone replacement therapy and risk of breast cancer in a French cohort study of 3175 women. Climacteric. 2002 Dec;5(4):332-40. de Lignières B, de Vathaire F, Fournier S, Urbinelli R, Allaert F, Le MG, Kuttenn F. Service d'Endocrinologie et Médecine de la Reproduction, Hôpital Necker, Paris, France. 
The largest-to-date randomized trial (Women's Health Initiative) comparing the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and a placebo concluded that the continuous use of an oral combination of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) and medroxy-progesterone acetate (MPA) increases the risk of breast cancer. This conclusion may not apply to women taking other estrogen and progestin formulations, as suggested by discrepancies in the findings of...Click here to continue reading.

Randomized trial of estradiol vaginal ring versus oral oxybutynin for the treatment of overactive bladder. Menopause. 2011 Apr 26. Nelken RS, Ozel BZ, Leegant AR, Felix JC, Mishell DR Jr. From the Departments of 1Obstetrics and Gynecology and 2Pathology,Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.  
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the ultralow-dose estradiol vaginal ring with that of oral oxybutynin in the treatment of overactive bladder in postmenopausal women...Click here to continue reading.

Hormone therapy and risk of myocardial infarction: a national register study. Eur Heart J. 2008 Nov;29(21):2660-8. Løkkegaard E, Andreasen AH, Jacobsen RK, Nielsen LH, Agger C, Lidegaard Ø. Gynaecological Clinic, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.
AIM: To assess the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) as a result of hormone therapy (HT), with focus on the influence of age, duration of HT, various regimens and routes, progestagen type, and oestrogen dose. METHODS AND RESULTS: All healthy Danish women (n = 698,098, aged 51-69) were followed during 1995-2001...Click here to continue reading.

Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004 Apr 14;291(14):1701-12. Anderson GL, et al. Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Wash 98109-1024, USA.  
CONTEXT: Despite decades of use and considerable research, the role of estrogen alone in preventing chronic diseases in postmenopausal women remains uncertain.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects on major disease incidence rates of the most commonly used postmenopausal hormone therapy in the United States...Click here to continue reading.

Effects of continuous combined hormone replacement therapy and clodronate on bone mineral density in osteoporotic postmenopausal women-A 5-year follow-up. Maturitas. 2010 May 21. Tuppurainen M, et al. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland; Bone and Cartilage Research Unit, Clinical Research Center, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland. 
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of HRT with or without clodronate on bone mineral density (BMD) change and bone turnover markers...Click here to continue reading.

Treatment of skin aging with topical estrogens.
Schmidt JB, Binder M, Demschik G, Bieglmayer C, Reiner A. Department of Dermatology, University of Vienna Medical School, Austria. 
The coincidence of climacteric symptoms and the beginning of skin aging suggests that estrogen deficiency may be a common and important factor in the perimenopausal woman. Often hormones have been considered important in endogenous aging of the skin, but their role has not been clearly defined. Therefore, we investigated, whether topical treatment of the skin with estrogen could reverse some of the changes in the aging skin...Click here to continue reading.

Effects and side-effects of 2% progesterone cream on the skin of peri- and postmenopausal women: results from a double-blind, vehicle-controlled, randomized study. Br J Dermatol. 2005 Sep;153(3):626-34. Holzer G, Riegler E, Hönigsmann H, Farokhnia S, Schmidt JB. Division of Special and Environmental Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.
BACKGROUND: For many years topical progesterone has been prescribed by gynaecologists as an antiageing and skin-firming treatment, without any clinical scientific evidence of its effects, tolerability and safety when applied to skin...Click here to continue reading. 

The role of estrogen deficiency in skin ageing and wound healing.
Biogerontology. 2011 Mar 3. Emmerson E, Hardman MJ. Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, A V Hill Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK.
The links between hormonal signalling and lifespan have been well documented in a range of model organisms. For example, in C. elegans or D. melanogaster, lifespan can be modulated by ablating germline cells, or manipulating reproductive history or pregnenolone signalling. In mammalian systems, however, hormonal contribution to longevity is less well understood. With increasing age human steroid hormone profiles change substantially, particularly following menopause in women. This article reviews recent links between steroid sex hormones and ageing, with special emphasis on the skin and wound repair...Click here to continue reading.

Oestrogen and age estimations of perimenopausal women.
Lancet. 1999 Jul 17;354(9174):224. Wildt L, Sir-Petermann T. 

We estimated the age of perimenopausal women at a first visit and measured the concentrations of oestradiol in serum. The accuracy of estimation of age strongly correlated with oestradiol concentrations: age was overestimated when oestradiol was low and underestimated when oestradiol was high...Click here.

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